Bladder cancer: A mini review
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Keywords:Bladder cancer, smoking, urology
Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the West, after prostate, breast, lung, and colorectal cancer. Between the ages of 60 and 70, it reaches its highest occurrence. Bladder cancer is 2.5 times as common in men than in women. According to the Global Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence (GLOBOCAN) data, an additional 573,000 cases of bladder cancer were detected in 2020. This accounts for about 3% of new cancer diagnoses. Tobacco is the leading known cause of bladder cancer, accounting for 30-40% of all cases of urothelial carcinoma and up to two-thirds of all bladder cancers. The increase in the incidence of urothelial and squamous bladder cancer has been associated with mutations in the tumor suppressor gene phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and DNA mismatch repair gene MutS homolog 2 (MSH2) seen in Cowden and Lynch syndromes. In this review, our goal was to review the epidemiology, etiology, and main risk factors of bladder cancer.
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